Hitler Commits Suicide

April 24, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comment 

On this day,April 30, in 1945, holed up in a bunker under his headquarters in Berlin, Adolf Hitler commits suicide by swallowing a cyanide capsule and shooting himself in the head. Soon after, Germany unconditionally surrendered to the Allied forces, e…
On this day in 1945, holed up in a bunker under his headquarters in Berlin, Adolf Hitler commits suicide by swallowing a cyanide capsule and shooting himself in the head. Soon after, Germany unconditionally surrendered to the Allied forces, ending Hitler’s dreams of a “1,000-year” Reich.

Since at least 1943, it was becoming increasingly clear that Germany would fold under the pressure of the Allied forces. In February of that year, the German 6th Army, lured deep into the Soviet Union, was annihilated at the Battle of Stalingrad, and German hopes for a sustained offensive on both fronts evaporated. Then, in June 1944, the Western Allied armies landed at Normandy, France, and began systematically to push the Germans back toward Berlin. By July 1944, several German military commanders acknowledged their imminent defeat and plotted to remove Hitler from power so as to negotiate a more favorable peace. Their attempts to assassinate Hitler failed, however, and in his reprisals, Hitler executed over 4,000 fellow countrymen.

In January 1945, facing a siege of Berlin by the Soviets, Hitler withdrew to his bunker to live out his final days. Located 55 feet under the chancellery, the shelter contained 18 rooms and was fully self-sufficient, with its own water and electrical supply. Though he was growing increasingly mad, Hitler continued to give orders and meet with such close subordinates as Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler and Josef Goebbels. He also married his long-time mistress Eva Braun just two days before his suicide.

In his last will and testament, Hitler appointed Admiral Karl Donitz as head of state and Goebbels as chancellor. He then retired to his private quarters with Braun, where he and Braun poisoned themselves and their dogs, before Hitler then also shot himself with his service pistol.

Hitler and Braun’s bodies were hastily cremated in the chancellery garden, as Soviet forces closed in on the building. When the Soviets reached the chancellery, they removed Hitler’s ashes, continually changing their location so as to prevent Hitler devotees from creating a memorial at his final resting place. Only eight days later, on May 8, 1945, the German forces issued an unconditional surrender, leaving Germany to be carved up by the four Allied powers.

Easter Rebellion Begins Apr 24, 1916

April 24, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comment 

On this day in 1916, on Easter Monday in Dublin, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, a secret organization of Irish nationalists led by Patrick Pearse, launches the so-called Easter Rebellion, an armed uprising against British rule. Assisted by militant Irish socialists under James Connolly, Pearse and his fellow Republicans rioted and attacked British provincial government headquarters across Dublin and seized the Irish capital’s General Post Office. Following these successes, they proclaimed the independence of Ireland, which had been under the repressive thumb of the United Kingdom for centuries, and by the next morning were in control of much of the city. Later that day, however, British authorities launched a counteroffensive, and by April 29 the uprising had been crushed. Nevertheless, the Easter Rebellion is considered a significant marker on the road to establishing an independent Irish republic.

Following the uprising, Pearse and 14 other nationalist leaders were executed for their participation and held up as martyrs by many in Ireland. There was little love lost among most Irish people for the British, who had enacted a series of harsh anti-Catholic restrictions, the Penal Laws, in the 18th century, and then let 1.5 million Irish starve during the Potato Famine of 1845-1848. Armed protest continued after the Easter Rebellion and in 1921, 26 of Ireland’s 32 counties won independence with the declaration of the Irish Free State. The Free State became an independent republic in 1949. However, six northeastern counties of the Emerald Isle remained part of the United Kingdom, prompting some nationalists to reorganize themselves into the Irish Republican Army (IRA) to continue their struggle for full Irish independence.

In the late 1960s, influenced in part by the U.S. civil rights movement, Catholics in Northern Ireland, long discriminated against by British policies that favored Irish Protestants, advocated for justice. Civil unrest broke out between Catholics and Protestants in the region and the violence escalated as the pro-Catholic IRA battled British troops. An ongoing series of terrorist bombings and attacks ensued in a drawn-out conflict that came to be known as “The Troubles.” Peace talks eventually took place throughout the mid- to late 1990s, but a permanent end to the violence remained elusive. Finally, in July 2005, the IRA announced its members would give up all their weapons and pursue the group’s objectives solely through peaceful means. By the fall of 2006, the Independent Monitoring Commission reported that the IRA’s military campaign to end British rule was over. Easter Rebellion begins. (2011). The History Channel website. Retrieved 2:58, April 27, 2011, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/easter-rebellion-begins.

Birthday History Greeting

April 23, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off on Birthday History Greeting 

You will receive a copy of the greeting too!
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A historical marker will be dedicated Saturday in Falkner to World War I veteran Orvil Lucian Cotten for his heroism.

April 23, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off on A historical marker will be dedicated Saturday in Falkner to World War I veteran Orvil Lucian Cotten for his heroism. 

Historical marker to be dedicated to WWI veterans in Falkner

FALKNER, Miss. — A historical marker will be dedicated Saturday in Falkner to World War I veteran Orvil Lucian Cotten for his heroism.

The marker will be placed at the intersection of Tippah County Roads 200 and 264.

The Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal reports that the marker will be presented to Falkner and Tippah County by Cotten’s daughter Norma C. Leadford.

Cotten was born near Falkner in 1896 and died in Memphis in 1992. He is buried in the Cotten Cemetery, east of Falkner.

In World War I, Cotten was a Signal Corps telephone lineman in northern France. His job was to prepare telephone lines on the battlefield.

Records show Cotton distinguished himself during the Battle of St. Quentin Canal, Bellincort in northern France. On Sept. 27, 1918, after the Allied 30th Division was gassed by the Germans, Cotten, although injured in the gas attack, and working under constant shellfire, refused to be evacuated, and kept phone lines open between the 115th and 117th Allied Regiments.

He was awarded the Distinguished Service Cross, the British Military Medal and the French Croix de Guerre.

The historical marker was provided by the Mississippi Department of Archives and History and was paid for with private funds.

Information from: Northeast Mississippi Daily Journal,http://nems360.com/


Painted Rock on the Tule River Indian Reservation

April 23, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off on Painted Rock on the Tule River Indian Reservation 

Painted Rock is located on the Tule River Indian
Reservation, above Porterville, in the Sierra Nevada foothills
of central California . This site, also known as CA-TUL-19, is
a rockshelter associated with a Native American Yokuts
village. The site, located immediately adjacent to the Tule
River, includes bedrock mortars, pitted boulders, midden and
pictographs. The pictographs are located within the
rockshelter, and are painted on the ceiling and walls of the
shelter The pictographs include paintings of a male, female,
and child Bigfoot (known as the family), coyote, beaver,
bear, frog, caterpillar, centipede, humans, eagle, condor,
lizard and various lines, circles, and other geometric
designs. The paintings are in red, black, white, and yellow.
This rock art site is unique; not only because it contains a
Bigfoot pictograph, but also because of the traditional Native
American stories that accompany it. There are no other
known creation stories involving a Bigfoot-like creature in
California. As far as can be determined, there are no Bigfoot
creation stories anywhere else in the west. There is also no
evidence of any other Bigfoot pictographs. Most states, including California, keep a database of all
recorded sites located on federal, state, county, city, or private land. Based on that information, there is
no other known Bigfoot pictographs or petroglyphs anywhere in California, Washington, Oregon,
Nevada, or Idaho.
This paper will describe the rock art, the known history of the site, the traditional Yokuts Hairy Man
stories, and the association of the rock art with other Penutian language groups.
Probably the most unusual feature of this site is the presence of an entire Bigfoot family. Besides the
male Hairy Man, there are also a female and child “bigfoot.” The mother is 1.8 meters high by 1.2
meters wide, and is solely red (Figure 6). The painting represents a 6-foot high, two-legged creature
with her arms open (Figure 7). She has five fingers and little other detail. Immediately adjacent to her,
and directly under her right hand, is her child. The child measures 1.2 meters high by 1 meter wide and
is also solely red . The painting represents a 4-foot high, two-legged creature with small arms and five
fingers. The figure has an unusually rounded head, suggestive of a sagittal crest .
Clewlow (1978) estimated that the paintings were made around A.D. 500, but could be as old as A.D. 1
or as young as AD. 1200 (2000 to 700 years old). Latta (1949) noted that year-round occupied villages
were placed at important places, either where paintings were or at some place where Indian
ceremonies were performed. Archaeologically, the village at Painted Rock was occupied in the late
prehistoric, around 500 years ago. Since it is believed that the paintings were present prior to the
village, the paintings are likely 500-1000 years old.
source: http://www.tulerivertribe-nsn.gov

Easter Celebration

April 23, 2011 · Posted in Church History · Comments Off on Easter Celebration 

Easter, which celebrates Jesus Christ’s resurrection from the dead, is Christianity’s most important holiday. It has been called a moveable feast because it doesn’t fall on a set date every year, as most holidays do. Instead, Christian churches in the West celebrate Easter on the first Sunday following the full moon after the vernal equinox on March 21. Therefore, Easter is observed anywhere between March 22 and April 25 every year. Orthodox Christians use the Julian calendar to calculate when Easter will occur and typically celebrate the holiday a week or two after the Western churches, which follow the Gregorian calendar.

The exact origins of this religious feast day’s name are unknown. Some sources claim the word Easter is derived from Eostre, a Teutonic goddess of spring and fertility. Other accounts trace Easter to the Latin term hebdomada alba, or white week, an ancient reference to Easter week and the white clothing donned by people who were baptized during that time. Through a translation error, the term later appeared as esostarum in Old High German, which eventually became Easter in English. In Spanish, Easter is known as Pascua; in French, Paques. These words are derived from the Greek and Latin Pascha or Pasch, for Passover. Jesus’ crucifixion and resurrection occurred after he went to Jerusalem to celebrate Passover (or Pesach in Hebrew), the Jewish festival commemorating the ancient Israelites’ exodus from slavery in Egypt. Pascha eventually came to mean Easter.

Easter is really an entire season of the Christian church year, as opposed to a single-day observance. Lent, the 40-day period leading up to Easter Sunday, is a time of reflection and penance and represents the 40 days that Jesus spent alone in the wilderness before starting his ministry, a time in which Christians believe he survived various temptations by the devil. The day before Lent, known as Mardi Gras or Fat Tuesday, is a last hurrah of food and fun before the fasting begins. The week preceding Easter is called Holy Week and includes Maundy Thursday, which commemorates Jesus’ last supper with his disciples; Good Friday, which honors the day of his crucifixion; and Holy Saturday, which focuses on the transition between the crucifixion and resurrection. The 50-day period following Easter Sunday is called Eastertide and includes a celebration of Jesus’ ascension into heaven.

In addition to Easter’s religious significance, it also has a commercial side, as evidenced by the mounds of jelly beans and marshmallow chicks that appear in stores each spring. As with Christmas, over the centuries various folk customs and pagan traditions, including Easter eggs, bunnies, baskets and candy, have become a standard part of this holy holiday.

Easter. (2011). The History Channel website. Retrieved 8:31, April 22, 2011, from http://www.history.com/topics/history-of-easter.

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