Research History

Space Needle Turns 50

Written by  on April 21, 2012


By Harriet Baskas, contributor
A popular way for visitors to get an overview of a city is from the observation deck of an iconic structure such as New York’s Empire State Building, Chicago’s Willis Tower (formerly the Sears Tower) or Seattle’s Space Needle, which joins the Seattle World’s Fair in celebrating its 50th anniversary on April 21.

Created as the centerpiece of the 1962 space-themed exposition, the 605-foot-tall Space Needle has been described as looking like “a UFO on stilts” and was for many years the tallest building west of the Mississippi River. Today, the still futuristic-looking Needle is an iconic landmark in the Emerald City, its most visited attraction and home to one of the few remaining rotating restaurants in the world.

To learn more about the Space Needle – and some of its secrets – we spoke with Seattle writer Knute Berger, who attended the World’s Fair when he was 8 years old and is the author of a new book titled “Space Needle: The Spirit of Seattle.”

Q: Landmark buildings in many cities are straight-ahead tall towers. How did Seattle’s most famous structure end up looking as if a UFO just landed?

A: Architect John Graham Jr. wanted a top that looked like a flying saucer and exhorted his staff designers to make the top “more disc-y.” It made sense because it was a Space Age form; the flying saucer phenomenon got its start with a sighting at [Washington State’s] Mt. Rainier in 1947, and that mountain is the biggest landmark you can see from the Needle. Plus, a saucer-shaped restaurant made sense for one that rotates.

Seattle’s Space Needle is getting a retro makeover in celebration of its 50th anniversary. KING-TV’s Mimi Jung reports.
Q: We understand you wrote your book about the Space Needle during a six-month stint working at the Needle. Why did you do that?

A: The Space Needle commissioned me to write their history for the 50th anniversary. They named me writer-in-residence at the Space Needle and gave me a desk on the Observation Deck. I would conduct interviews over lunch in SkyCity [the Needle’s rotating restaurant], then go upstairs and write, blog and talk with visitors. I met people from all over the world and sometimes ran into people with great stories, like police officer Roy Skagen who was on Elvis’ security detail during the filming of “It Happened at the World’s Fair” [filmed on-site during the Seattle World’s Fair]. He used to toss a football with Elvis during breaks in the filming.

Q: What are some secrets and cool facts you learned about the Space Needle?

A: The Needle was essentially built in a year. U.S. Steel called it the “400-day wonder.”

The motor that turns the restaurant is only one horsepower. It runs clockwise, but it can also run in reverse.

A group of UFO buffs, called The Skywatchers, used to meet on the Needle every night looking for flying saucers.

Related video: Hot spot destinations in the Pacific Northwest

Q: We’ve learned that 1.3 million people visit the Space Needle’s observation deck each year. Do you have some insider tips on getting the most out of a trip up there?

A: If you want to join the crowds, go in the summer when the cruise ships are in town. It feels like a fair up there. If you want the place to yourself, maybe go first thing on a weekday morning when the weather is a bit gray.

Courtesy of Space Needle LLC

The motor that turns the SkyCity restaurant atop the Space Needle is only one horsepower. It runs clockwise, but it can also run in reverse.
Make sure to get out on the deck and walk all the way around; it’s a spectacular view in all directions. You can see three national parks from up there [Olympic, Rainier and North Cascades]. On a few super, super clear days a year, you can see the cone of Mt. St. Helens. But contrary to some reports, you cannot see Canada.

Q: That glass elevator – and the elevator ride up the legs of the Space Needle – seems a bit scary. Any insider tips on that ride?

A: If you’re scared of heights, move to the back of the elevator. There are no windows and the crowd will block the view. If you love a fun ride, turn immediately right or left when you enter and stand by the windows. You’ll get a great view of the rapid rise and parts of the structure zooming by. [During the fair] N.Y. Gov. Nelson Rockefeller described the trip down as like going over Niagara Falls in a barrel. But it’s tamer than that.

Q: In addition to the Observation Deck, there’s that rotating restaurant on top of the Space Needle. Any menu tips you can share?

A: I ate up there once or twice a week during my residency, and my favorite was the huge Shrimp and Crab Louie. And I always recommend the local soup of the day. I had a nettle soup that was out of this world. The special dessert is the Lunar Obiter: basically a sundae served with dry ice that is a huge crowd-pleaser with kids.

Q: Anything else visitors should know about the Space Needle as it celebrates its 50th anniversary?

A: The Needle has lived most of its life since the fair and is a local totem, a place of great meaning to people, a site of weddings, anniversaries, deaths, births, world firsts and celebrity visits. It has symbolized everything from yuppie Seattle [on TV’s "Frasier"] to a super-villain’s headquarters [Dr. Evil's pad in "Austin Powers"]. It’s been a magnet for magic moments and you feel some of that energy and buzz when you visit. I was surprised that, as someone who was Seattle born and raised, I always saw something new up there every time. The scenery, the weather and light, the dynamic city — it’s never the same view.


Rome Founded

Written by  on April 21, 2012

Apr 21 753 B.C.


According to tradition, on April 21, 753 B.C., Romulus and his twin brother, Remus, found Rome on the site where they were suckled by a she-wolf as orphaned infants. Actually, the Romulus and Remus myth originated sometime in the fourth century B.C., and the exact date of Rome’s founding was set by the Roman scholar Marcus Terentius Varro in the first century B.C.

According to the legend, Romulus and Remus were the sons of Rhea Silvia, the daughter of King Numitor of Alba Longa. Alba Longa was a mythical city located in the Alban Hills southeast of what would become Rome. Before the birth of the twins, Numitor was deposed by his younger brother Amulius, who forced Rhea to become a vestal virgin so that she would not give birth to rival claimants to his title. However, Rhea was impregnated by the war god Mars and gave birth to Romulus and Remus. Amulius ordered the infants drowned in the Tiber, but they survived and washed ashore at the foot of the Palatine hill, where they were suckled by a she-wolf until they were found by the shepherd Faustulus.

Reared by Faustulus and his wife, the twins later became leaders of a band of young shepherd warriors. After learning their true identity, they attacked Alba Longa, killed the wicked Amulius, and restored their grandfather to the throne. The twins then decided to found a town on the site where they had been saved as infants. They soon became involved in a petty quarrel, however, and Remus was slain by his brother. Romulus then became ruler of the settlement, which was named “Rome” after him.

To populate his town, Romulus offered asylum to fugitives and exiles. Rome lacked women, however, so Romulus invited the neighboring Sabines to a festival and abducted their women. A war then ensued, but the Sabine women intervened to prevent the Sabine men from seizing Rome. A peace treaty was drawn up, and the communities merged under the joint rule of Romulus and the Sabine king, Titus Tatius. Tatius’ early death, perhaps perpetrated by Romulus, left the Roman as the sole king again. After a long and successful rule, Romulus died under obscure circumstances. Many Romans believed he was changed into a god and worshipped him as the deity Quirinus. After Romulus, there were six more kings of Rome, the last three believed to be Etruscans. Around 509 B.C., the Roman republic was established.

Another Roman foundation legend, which has its origins in ancient Greece, tells of how the mythical Trojan Aeneas founded Lavinium and started a dynasty that would lead to the birth of Romulus and Remus several centuries later. In the Iliad, an epic Greek poem probably composed by Homer in the eighth century B.C., Aeneas was the only major Trojan hero to survive the Greek destruction of Troy. A passage told of how he and his descendants would rule the Trojans, but since there was no record of any such dynasty in Troy, Greek scholars proposed that Aeneas and his followers relocated.

In the fifth century B.C., a few Greek historians speculated that Aeneas settled at Rome, which was then still a small city-state. In the fourth century B.C., Rome began to expand within the Italian peninsula, and Romans, coming into greater contact with the Greeks, embraced the suggestion that Aeneas had a role in the foundation of their great city. In the first century B.C., the Roman poet Virgil developed the Aeneas myth in his epic poem the Aeneid, which told of Aeneas’ journey to Rome. Augustus, the first Roman emperor and emperor during Virgil’s time, and Julius Caesar, his great-uncle and predecessor as Roman ruler, were said to be descended from Aeneas

Rome founded. (2012). The History Channel website. Retrieved 10:27, April 21, 2012, from


Apollo 13 Astronauts Return Safely on April 17, 1970

Written by  on April 17, 2012

apollo 13

1970: Critical explosion cripples Apollo 13

An explosion on board Apollo 13 has caused one of the most critical situations in American space history and put the lives of the three astronauts on board in severe jeopardy.
The explosion happened in the fuel cells of the spacecraft’s service module approximately 56 hours after lift-off.

This resulted in the loss of Apollo 13’s main power supply which means oxygen and water reserves are now critically low.

The safety of the three astronauts, Captain James Lovell, Jack Swigert and Fred Haise, is uncertain although Nasa is hoping emergency contingency plans will ensure their safe return.

Certain death

The cause of the explosion is not yet clear although it is understood it could have been the result of a meteorite crashing into the service module.

It is unlikely the exact cause will ever be ascertained as the service module will burn up before the spacecraft’s re-entry into the earth’s atmosphere.

The crew are currently surviving on the emergency battery power supply of the lunar module, Aquarius.

If the accident had occurred after the lunar module had been detached for the moon landing, the astronauts would have faced certain death.

The spacecraft’s main computer has now been switched off to conserve what little power remains in the command module, Odyssey, as this part of the spacecraft will be required for re-entry into the earth’s atmosphere.

Plans have been made to “slingshot” Apollo 13 around the Moon and fire the spacecraft’s last remaining booster engine to take it away from the Moon’s orbit and bring it back on course to Earth.

This is a highly risky operation and there is no back-up should anything go wrong.

If all goes to plan Apollo 13 is due to splash down at approximately 1900 BST on Friday 17 April.

Geological experiments

The Apollo 13 mission was to have been man’s third Moon landing. The spacecraft was due to land in the Fra Mauro area of the Moon on Thursday 16 April.

Captain Lovell and Mr Haise were due to carry out geological experiments on the Moon’s surface as part of an ongoing project to establish the true age of the Moon.

Rock samples taken from previous missions have been dated as being 4,500 million years old.

During the 33-hour Moon landing Mr Swigert would have been responsible for piloting the command module in lunar orbit.

Mr Swigert replaced Thomas Mattingly as command module pilot just hours before the mission began after it was found that Mr Mattingly had no immunity after exposure to German Measles.


Aung San Suu Kyi Biography

Written by  on April 1, 2012


The Nobel Peace Prize 1991

Aung San Suu Kyi


1942: September 6. Marriage of Aung San, commander of the Burma Independence Army, and Ma Khin Kyi (becoming Daw Khin Kyi), senior nurse of Rangoon General Hospital, where he had recovered from the rigours of the march into Burma.
1945: June 19. Aung San Suu Kyi born in Rangoon, third child in family. “Aung San” for father, “Kyi” for mother, “Suu” for grandmother, also day of week of birth.
Favourite brother is to drown tragically at an early age. The older brother, will settle in San Diego, California, becoming United States citizen.
1947: July 19. General Aung San assassinated. Suu Kyi is two years old. Daw Khin Kyi becomes a prominent public figure, heading social planning and social policy bodies.
1948: January 4. The Independent Union of Burma is established.
1960: Daw Khin Kyi appointed Burma’s ambassador to India. Suu Kyi accompanies mother to New Delhi.
1960-64: Suu Kyi at high school and Lady Shri Ram College in New Delhi.
1964-67: Oxford University, B.A. in philosophy, politics and economics at St. Hugh’s College (elected Honorary Fellow, 1990).
British “parents” are Lord Gore-Booth, former British ambassador to Burma and High Commissioner in India, and his wife, at whose home Suu Kyi meets Michael Aris, student of Tibetan civilisation.
1969-71: She goes to New York for graduate study, staying with family friend Ma Than E, staff member at the United Nations, where U. Thant of Burma is Secretary-General. Postponing studies, Suu Kyi joins U.N. secretariat as Assistant Secretary, Advisory Committee on Administrative and Budgetary Questions. Evenings and weekends volunteers at hospital, helping indigent patients in programs of reading and companionship.
1972: January 1. Marries Michael Aris, joins him in Himalayan kingdom of Bhutan, where he tutors royal family and heads Translation Department. She becomes Research Officer in the Royal Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
1973: They return to England for birth of Alexander in London.
1974: Michael assumes appointment in Tibetan and Himalayan studies at Oxford University.
1977: Birth of second son, Kim at Oxford.
While raising her children, Suu Kyi begins writing, researches for biography of father, and assists Michael in Himalayan studies.
1984: Publishes Aung San in Leaders of Asia series of University of Queensland Press. (See Freedom from Fear, pp. 3-38.)
1985: For juvenile readers publishes Let’s Visit Burma (see Freedom from Fear, pp. 39-81), also books on Nepal and Bhutan in same series for Burke Publishing Company, London.
1985-86: Visiting Scholar, Center of Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, researching father’s time in Japan. Kim with her, Alexander with Michael, who has fellowship at Indian Institute of Advanced Studies at Simla in northern India.
1986: On annual visit to grandmother in Rangoon, Alexander and Kim take part in traditional Buddhist ceremony of initiation into monkhood.
1987: With fellowship at Indian Institute Suu Kyi, with Kim, joins Michael and Alexander in Simla. Travels to London when mother is there for cataract surgery.
Publishes “Socio-Political Currents in Burmese Literature, 1910-1940″ in journal of Tokyo University. (See Freedom from Fear, pp. 140-164.) September. Family returns to Oxford. Suu Kyi enrolls at London School of Oriental and African Studies to work on advanced degree.
1988: March 31. Informed by telephone of mother’s severe stroke, she takes plane next day to Rangoon to help care for Daw Khin Kyi at hospital, then moves her to family home on University Avenue next to Inya Lake in Rangoon.
July 23. Resignation of General Ne Win, since 1962 military dictator of Burma. Popular demonstrations of protest continuing.
August 8. Mass uprising throughout country. Violent suppression by military kills thousands.
August 15. Suu Kyi, in first political action, sends open letter to government, asking for formation of independent consultative committee to prepare multi-party elections.
August 26. In first public speech, she addresses several hundred thousand people outside Shwedagon Pagoda, calling for democratic government. Michael and her two sons are there.
September 18. Military establishes State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). Political gatherings of more than four persons banned. Arrests and sentencing without trial reaffirmed. Parliamentary elections to be held, but in expectation that multiplicity of parties will prevent clear result.
September 24. National League for Democracy (NLD) formed, with Suu Kyi general-secretary. Policy of non-violence and civil disobedience. October-December. Defying ban, Suu Kyi makes speech-making tour throughout country to large audiences.
December 27. Daw Khin Kyi dies at age of seventy-six.
1989: January 2. Funeral of Daw Khin Kyi. Huge funeral procession. Suu Kyi vows that as her father and mother had served the people of Burma, so too would she, even unto death.
January-July. Suu Kyi continues campaign despite harassment, arrests and killings by soldiers.
February 17. Suu Kyi prohibited from standing for election.
April 5. Incident in Irawaddy Delta when Suu Kyi courageously walks toward rifles soldiers are aiming at her.
July 20. Suu Kyi placed under house arrest, without charge or trial. Sons already with her. Michael flies to Rangoon, finds her on third day of hunger strike, asking to be sent to prison to join students arrested at her home. Ends strike when good treatment of students is promised.
1990: May 27. Despite detention of Suu Kyi, NLD wins election with 82% of parliamentary seats. SLORC refuses to recognise results.
October 12. Suu Kyi granted 1990 Rafto Human Rights Prize.
1991: July 10. European Parliament awards Suu Kyi Sakharov human rights prize.
October 14. Norwegian Nobel Committee announces Suu Kyi is winner of 1991 Peace Prize.
1991: December. Freedom from Fear published by Penguin in New York, England, Canada, Australia, New Zealand. Also in Norwegian, French, Spanish translations.
December 10. Alexander and Kim accept prize for mother in Oslo ceremony. Suu Kyi remains in detention, having rejected offer to free her if she will leave Burma and withdraw from politics. Worldwide appeal growing for her release.
1992: Suu Kyi announces that she will use $1.3 million prize money to establish health and education trust for Burmese people.
1993: Group of Nobel Peace Laureates, denied entry to Burma, visit Burmese refugees on Thailand border, call for Suu Kyi’s release, Their appeal later repeated at UN Commission for Human Rights in Geneva.
1994: February. First non-family visitors to Suu Kyi: UN representative, U.S. congressman, New York Times reporter.
September-October. SLORC leaders meet with Suu Kyi, who still asks for a public dialogue.
1995: July 10. SLORC releases Suu Kyi from house arrest after six years of detention.

In the last four years her movements have still been restricted. While she has had some opportunities to telephone her family in England, she is regularly denounced in the government-controlled media, and there is concern for her personal safety. Efforts to revive any NLD party activities have been balked, and its members have been jailed and physically attacked. In the first months after detention was ended, she was able to speak to large gatherings of supporters outside her home, but this was stopped. Yet her popularity in the country has not diminished.

Internationally her voice has been heard not infrequently. Reporters with cameras and videotape have been able to interview her in person, and telephone interviews with the media outside Burma have also been published. Using video cassettes she has sent out statements, including the keynote address to the NGO Forum at the U.N. International Women’s Conference in Beijing in August 1995.

There have been a number of visitors from abroad, including a member of the Norwegian Nobel Committee, whom she told that Norway will be the first country she will visit when free to travel. SLORC has changed its name to the State Peace and Development Council, but its repressive policies and violation of human rights continue unabated.

Suu Kyi discourages tourists from visiting Burma and businessmen from investing in the country until it is free. She finds hearing for such pleas among western nations, and the United States has applied economic sanctions against Burma, but Burma’s neighbours follow their policy of not intervening in the internal affairs of other sovereign states, and Burma has been admitted into the Association of South Eastern Asian Nations.

On March 27, 1999, Michael Aris died of prostate cancer in London. He had petitioned the Burmese authorities to allow him to visit Suu Kyi one last time, but they had rejected his request. He had not seen her since a Christmas visit in 1995. The government always urged her to join her family abroad, but she knew that she would not be allowed to return. This separation she regarded as one of the sacrifices she had had to make in order to work for a free Burma.


Selected Bibliography
By Aung San Suu Kyi
Freedom from Fear and Other Writings. Edited with introduction by Michael Aris. 2nd ed., revised. New York and London: Penguin, 1995. (Includes essays by friends and scholars.)
Voice of Hope: Conversations. London: Penguin, 1997 and New York City: Seven Stories Press, 1997 (Conversations beginning in November 1995 with Alan Clements, the founder of the Burma Project in California who helped with the script for the film based on her life, “Beyond Rangoon”.)
Other Sources
“Aung San Suu Kyi”, in Current Biography, February 1992.
Clements, Alan and Leslie Kean. Burma’s Revolution of the Spirit: The Struggle for Democratic Freedom and Dignity. New York: Aperture, 1994. (Many colour photographs with text, Includes essay by Aung San Suu Kyi.)
Clements, Alan. Burma: The Next Killing Fields. Tucson, Arizona; Odonian Press, 1992. (With a foreword by the Dalai Lama.)
Lintner, Bertil. Burma in Revolt: Opium and Insurgency since 1948. Boulder. Colorado: Westview, 1994. (By a well-informed Swedish journalist.)
Lintner, Bertil. Outrage: Burma’s Struggle for Democracy. 2nd ed., Edinburgh: Kiscadale, 1995.
Mirante, Edith T. Burmese Looking Glass. A Human Rights Adventure and a Jungle Revolution. New York: Grove, 1993.
Smith, Martin J. Burma: Intrangency and the Politics of Ethnicity. London: Zed Books, 1991. (A detailed and well-organised account by a journalist of the violent conflict between the military government and the many minorities.)
Victor, Barbara. The Lady: Aung San Suu Kyi: Nobel Laureate and Burma’s Prisoner. Boston and London: Faber & Faber, 1998. (A sympathetic account by a wellpublished author and journalist, whose research in Burma included interviews with government leaders.)

* Since no biography was printed in Les Prix Nobel 1991, this chronology has been assembled by the editor.

From Nobel Lectures, Peace 1991-1995, Editor Irwin Abrams, World Scientific Publishing Co., Singapore, 1999

This autobiography/biography was written at the time of the award and first published in the book series Les Prix Nobel. It was later edited and republished in Nobel Lectures. To cite this document, always state the source as shown above.


Copyright © The Nobel Foundation 1991

MLA style: “Aung San Suu Kyi – Biography”. Apr 2012

Copyright © Nobel Media AB 2012


Aug 3, 1492: Columbus sets sail

Written by  on August 3, 2011

Columbus sets sail. (2011). The History Channel website. Retrieved 11:07, August 3, 2011, from

From the Spanish port of Palos, Italian explorer Christopher Columbus sets sail in command of three ships—the Santa Maria, the Pinta, and the Nina—on a journey to find a western sea route to China, India, and the fabled gold and spice islands of Asia.

On October 12, the expedition sighted land, probably Watling Island in the Bahamas, and went ashore the same day, claiming it for Spain. Later that month, Columbus sighted Cuba, which he thought was mainland China, and in December the expedition landed on Hispaniola, which Columbus thought might be Japan. He established a small colony there with 39 of his men. The explorer returned to Spain with gold, spices, and “Indian” captives in March 1493 and was received with the highest honors by the Spanish court. He was the first European to explore the Americas since the Vikings set up colonies in Greenland and Newfoundland in the 10th century.

During his lifetime, Columbus led a total of four expeditions to the New World, discovering various Caribbean islands, the Gulf of Mexico, and the South and Central American mainland, but never accomplished his original goal—a western ocean route to the great cities of Asia. Columbus died in Spain in 1506 without realizing the great scope of what he did achieve: He had discovered for Europe the New World, whose riches over the next century would help make Spain the wealthiest and most powerful nation on earth.


Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. World War I began

Written by  on July 28, 2011
On July 28, 1914, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia. World War I began as declarations of war by other European nations quickly followed.

world war one

The ‘Great War’, which began on 28 July 1914 with Austria-Hungary’s declaration of war with Serbia, was the first truly global war.  It began in Europe but quickly spread throughout the world.  Many countries became embroiled within the war’s first month; others joined in the ensuing four years, with Honduras announcing hostilities with Germany as late as 19 July 1918 (with the record going to Romania, who entered the war – albeit for the second time – one day before it finished, on 10 November 1918).

Detailed below is a list of the nations who formally declared hostilities during World War One, along with their date of entrance.  Nations of the British Empire, e.g. Australia, Canada and New Zealand, automatically entered the war with Britain’s decision to enter the fray on 4 August 1914.

Note that on numerous occasions hostilities were assumed without a formal declaration, e.g. Russia with Germany and Austria-Hungary in August 1914.

Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

Declared war with Serbia on 28 July 1914
Declared war with Russia on 6 August 1914
Declared war with Belgium on 28 August 1914
Declared war with Portugal on 15 March 1916

Invaded by Germany on 3 August 1914

Severed relations with Germany on 13 April 1917

Severed relations with Germany on 11 April 1917
Declared war with Germany on 26 October 1917

Declared war with Serbia on 14 October 1915
Declared war with Romania on 1 September 1916

Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

Severed relations with Germany on 14 March 1917
Declared war with Germany on 14 August 1917
Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 14 August 1917

Costa Rica
Severed relations with Germany on 21 September 1917
Declared war with Germany on 23 May 1918

Declared war with Germany on 7 April 1917

Severed relations with Germany on 8 December 1917

Invaded by Germany on 2 August 1914
Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 12 August 1914
Declared war with Turkey on 5 November 1914
Declared war with Bulgaria on 16 October 1915

Declared war with Russia on 1 August 1914
Declared war with France on 3 August 1914
Declared war with Belgium on 4 August 1914
Declared war with Portugal on 9 March 1916

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 27 June 1917
Declared war with Bulgaria on 27 June 1917
Declared war with Germany on 27 June 1917
Declared war with Turkey on 27 June 1917

Declared war with Germany on 23 April 1918

Declared war with Germany on 12 July 1918

Declared war with Germany on 19 July 1918

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 23 May 1915
Declared war with Turkey on 21 August 1915
Declared war with Germany on 28 August 1915
Declared war with Bulgaria on 19 October 1915

Declared war with Germany on 23 August 1914
Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 25 August 1914

Declared war with Germany on 4 August 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 5 August 1914
Declared war with Germany on 8 August 1914
Declared war with Bulgaria on 15 October 1915

New Zealand
Entered war together with Britain on 4 August 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 8 May 1918
Declared war with Germany on 8 May 1918

Declared war with Germany on 7 April 1917
Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 10 December 1917

Severed relations with Germany on 6 October 1917

Entered war against Germany on 9 March 1916
Entered war against Austria-Hungary on 15 March 1916

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 27 August 1916
Exited war with Treaty of Bucharest on 7 May 1918
Re-entered the war on 10 November 1918

Declared war with Turkey on 2 November 1914
Declared war with Bulgaria on 19 October 1915

San Marino
Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 3 June 1915

Declared war with Germany on 6 August 1914
Declared war with Turkey on 2 November 1914

Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 22 July 1917
Declared war with Germany on 22 July 1917

Declared war with Romania on 30 August 1916
Severed relations with United States on 23 April 1917

United Kingdom
Declared war with Germany on 4 August 1914
Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 12 August 1914
Declared war with Turkey on 5 November 1914
Declared war with Bulgaria on 15 October 1915

United States of America
Declared war with Germany on 6 April 1917
Declared war with Austria-Hungary on 7 December 1917

Severed relations with Germany on 7 October 1917

Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia, Volume 27, Funk & Wagnall, 1983