Pyramid Hieroglyphs Likely Engineering Numbers

June 19, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

http://news.discovery.com/history/pyramid-hieroglyph-markings-archaeologist-110607.html

By Rossella Lorenzi | Tue Jun 7, 2011 12:19 PM ET

Mysterious hieroglyphs written in red paint on the floor of a hidden chamber in Egypt’s Great Pyramid of Giza are just numbers, according to a mathematical analysis of the 4,500-year-old mausoleum.

Shown to the world last month, when the first report of a robot exploration of the Great Pyramid was published in the Annales du Service Des Antiquities de l’Egypte (ASAE), the images revealed features that have not been seen by human eyes since the construction of the monument.

Researchers were particularly intrigued by three red ochre figures painted on the floor of a hidden chamber at the end of a tunnel deep inside the pyramid.

NEWS: Pyramid-Exploring Robot Reveals Hidden Hieroglyphs

“There are many unanswered questions that these images raise,” Rob Richardson, the engineer who designed the robot at the University of Leeds, told Discovery News. “Why is there writing in this space? What does the writing say? There appears to be a masonry cutting mark next to the figures: why was it not cut along this line?” Richardson wondered.

invisible soldier
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Luca Miatello, an independent researcher who specializes on ancient Egyptian mathematics, believes he has some answers.

“The markings are hieratic numerical signs. They read from right to left, meaning 100, 20, 1. The builders simply recorded the total length of the shaft: 121 cubits,” Miatello told Discovery News.

The royal cubit, the ancient Egyptian unit of measurement used in the construction of the pyramid, was between 52.3 and 52.5 cm (20.6 to 20.64 inches) in length, and was subdivided into seven palms of four digits (four fingers) each, making it a 28-part measure.

According to Miatello, who has written about the pyramid’s numerical patterns in the journal Ankh, and also more recently in PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, multiples of 7, 9 and 11 cubits occur frequently in the design of the Great Pyramid.

Built for the pharaoh Cheops, also known as Khufu, the Great Pyramid is the largest of a family of three pyramids on the Giza plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo and has long been rumored to have hidden passageways leading to secret chambers.Archaeologists have long puzzled over the purpose of four narrow shafts deep inside the pyramid since they were first discovered in 1872.

NEWS: Great Pyramid May Hold Two Hidden Chambers

Two shafts, extend from the upper, or “King’s Chamber” and exit into open air.

But the lower two, one on the south side and one on the north side in the so-called “Queen’s Chamber” disappear within the structures, deepening the pyramid mystery.

Robots have previously explored and sent back pictures from these 8-inch-square shafts, indicating that both shafts are blocked by a stone door. These stones are approximately equidistant (63.6 meters) from the Queen’s Chamber.

The new robot, named Djedi after the magician who Khufu consulted when planning the layout of this pyramid, has gone further than anyone has ever been before in the monument.

The project, led by Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, began with the exploration of the southern shaft of the Queen’s Chamber.

The robot was able to climb inside the walls of the shaft while carrying a bendy camera, small enough to fit through a small hole in a stone door at the end of the tunnel.

This gave researchers a clear view into the chamber beyond. It was at that time that the micro snake camera sent back images of 4,500-year-old markings.

“The floor of the chamber has a red ochre mason’s line running parallel to the shaft from just beyond the rear of the first blocking stone to the second blocking stone,” Hawass and colleagues write in ASAE.

“There is also a black mark where the red line meets the second blocking stone. To the right of, and at approximately 45 degrees to the red line are three red ochre figures,” they added.

According to Miatello, the red markings and figures were made by the workers during the pyramid construction.

“Precise mathematical rules were followed in the design of the pyramid’s tunnels,” Miatello said.

“We have considered several interpretations of the painted figures, including the possibility that they record the length of the shaft. Our strategy is to keep an open mind and only draw conclusions when we have completed our work. However, if this really is a written measurement of the shaft length then it’s very exciting,” project mission manager Shaun Whitehead, of the exploration company Scoutek UK, told Discovery News.

Hawass and colleagues agree that the markings are mason’s marks or hieratic characters.

“The two main figures are similar to the hieratic number 21,” they write in their report.

According to James P. Allen, a Wilbour Professor of Egyptology and Chair of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies at Brown University, the figures can indeed show the numbers indicated by Miatello.

“The signs are not easy to read, but Dr. Miatello’s reading is entirely plausible,” Allen, author of “The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Writings from the Ancient World” and a leading expert on hieroglyphics, told Discovery News.

The Djedi project researchers expect to carry additional analysis of the red ochre markings in August, when the robot, equipped with a higher resolution bendy camera will return to the pyramid for further surveys.

 

Humans First Wore Clothing 170,000 Years Ago

June 19, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

http://news.discovery.com/human/humans-first-wore-clothing-170000-years-ago.html

By Jennifer Viegas | Thu Jan 6, 2011 01:35 PM ET
Humans began to wear clothing 170,000 years ago, concludes a new study that suggests our ancestors first put on clothes after the second-to-last Ice Age, when being nude must have been too cool for comfort.

The evidence comes from seemingly very unfashionable lice, since scientists tracked when head lice evolved into clothing/body lice around 170,000 years ago. So lice have been with us since the world’s first clothes were made.
viking atire

(Viking attire circa 900 A.D. By this advanced stage, humans had created very sophisticated and colorful ways to clothe themselves. Credit: Annika Larsson)

The study, published in this month’s Molecular Biology and Evolution journal, explains how DNA sequencing of the parasites was used to calculate when clothing lice first began to genetically diverge from human head lice.
lice

(Adult female, left, and adult male, right, head lice; Wikimedia Commons image)

“We wanted to find another method for pinpointing when humans might have first started wearing clothing,” said project leader David Reed, associate curator of mammals at the Florida Museum of Natural History, in a University of Florida press release. “Because they are so well adapted to clothing, we know that body lice or clothing lice almost certainly didn’t exist until clothing came about in humans.”

The findings reveal that our ancestors started to wear clothing long after they lost their ape-like body hair. Genetic skin coloration research shows that hair loss happened around one million years ago, long before modern humans emerged in Africa. Our ancestors were likely running around nude and relatively hairless for quite some time then.

“It’s interesting to think humans were able to survive in Africa for hundreds of thousands of years without clothing and without body hair, and that it wasn’t until they had clothing that modern humans were then moving out of Africa into other parts of the world,” Reed said.

He added that our success and progression as a species has been made possible, in large part, to our “controlled use of fire, the ability to use clothing, new hunting strategies and new stone tools.”

Since our ancestors are thought to have migrated out of Africa and into colder climates and higher latitudes anywhere from 100,000 to 60,000 years ago, the findings indicate the invention of clothing made such long journeys northward possible.

The second to the last Ice Age occurred around 180,000 years ago, so in the aftermath of that cooling, humans may have figured out that putting on clothes- probably animal furs and skins- had enormous benefits. Years ago I also read some interesting studies on how a drive to express individuality and status pushed humans to wear more distinctive clothing, shoes and jewelry, and to don makeup and sport tattoos. Group divisions and competition can fuel that “look at me” desire, along with needing to visually affiliate oneself with a particular sect.

A study of clothing lice in 2003 led by Mark Stoneking, a geneticist at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany, estimated humans first began wearing clothes about 107,000 years ago. But the UF research includes new data and calculation methods.

“The new result from this lice study is an unexpectedly early date for clothing, much older than the earliest solid archaeological evidence, but it makes sense,” said Ian Gilligan, lecturer in the School of Archaeology and Anthropology at The Australian National University. “It means modern humans probably started wearing clothes on a regular basis to keep warm when they were first exposed to Ice Age conditions.”

Lice aren’t exactly beloved creatures. They’re usually associated with miserable kids having to go through lice removal treatments. From a scientific standpoint, however, they are valuable. These parasites are often found stranded on lineages of hosts over long periods of time, permitting researchers to learn about evolutionary changes in the host based on changes in the parasite.

Lice don’t just tell us about clothing either. Such research on them, according to Reed, “gives the opportunity to study host-switching and invading new hosts — behaviors seen in emerging infectious diseases that affect humans.”

Fathers Day Shortchanged? Humble History, Fewer Gifts

June 19, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2011/06/110616-fathers-day-entertainment-gifts-quotes-history/June 19, 2011
Father’s Day traditionally takes a backseat to Mother’s Day, and, for the most part, dads are cool with that, experts say.

Nevertheless, as traditional roles around the house gradually change, fathers are gaining more attention on their special day, at least as measured in the monetary value of Father’s Day gifts estimated to be given on June 19, 2011, when the holiday will be celebrated in dozens of countries.

First celebrated 101 years ago, Father’s Day was, in a way, born of Mother’s Day.

After a Mother’s Day sermon in 1909, Spokane, Washington, resident Sonora Smart-Dodd—one of six children being raised by a single dad—wanted to honor her father too.

Smart-Dodd encouraged local churches to institute the first Father’s Day observance the following year, and the idea caught on. (Learn more about the beginnings of Father’s Day.)

It wasn’t till 1972, though, that Father’s Day was officially made a U.S. holiday, when President Richard Nixon helped set aside the third Sunday in June for dads.

“Bar Is Lower” for Father’s Day

Thirty-one years later, dads are more likely to be satisfied with their holiday than mothers are with theirs, according to psychology lecturer Nicole Gilbert Cote at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, who researches Father’s Day phenomena.

Part of the reason seems to be that moms expect to be relieved of stereotypical chores such as cooking and cleaning on Mother’s Day, but that doesn’t always happen.

“The bar is lower, and Dad is OK with that,” Gilbert Cote said.

The old stereotypes don’t ring as true as they once did, according to a new survey of 350 dads that aimed to gauge men’s attitudes toward Father’s Day.

The men said they’re taking on more childcare, cleaning, and cooking duties at home, while holding on to responsibilities for automotive, household, and yard maintenance, the survey says.

“As women’s roles outside the household are expanding, men’s roles in the household are expanding,” Rutgers University anthropologist Helen Fisher said in a news release accompanying the survey, which was conducted by ManoftheHouse.com, an “online resource for dads.”

Even so, 80 percent of the respondents said Mother’s Day gets more attention than Father’s Day.

Father’s Day Gifts Get Richer

One measure of growing respect for U.S. fathers is seen at the cash register.

Family members will shell out an average of U.S. $106.49 per dad this year for golf outings, meals, electronics, neckties, and other goodies, according to an annual survey conducted for the National Retail Federation, a Washington, D.C.-based trade group.

That’s is the most money spent on dad in the eight-year history of the survey, and a jump up from the $94.32 forecast for 2010. Compared to moms, however, dads are routinely shortchanged. This year the federation forecast that Mother’s Day spending would average $140.73 per mom, for example.

“Dad is a little more laid-back and easier to shop for,” federation spokesperson Kathy Grannis told National Geographic News in 2010.

“His gifts usually range from a simple tie for work to a new spatula for the grill—all of which can make dad very happy.”

Mother’s Day gifts, by contrast, tend to be more luxurious than Father’s Day presents—jewels, flowers, a trip to the spa, or dinner at a restaurant, for example, Grannis said.

Father’s Day 2011 Is in the Cards

The most popular gift for Dad—and often the only one he’ll get—is a Father’s Day card. All told, roughly 90 million cards are exchanged on Father’s Day, according to the Hallmark card company.

This makes Father’s Day the fourth largest card-sending holiday in the U.S., behind Mother’s Day (141 million), Valentine’s Day (152 million), and Christmas (1.8 billion). In total, according to the retail federation, people will ring up about $749 million in cards for this year’s Father’s Day.

Fifty percent of Father’s Day cards are purchased for dads and another 15 percent for husbands. The remaining fall into a broad “other” category, which includes grandfathers, sons, brothers, uncles, and other loved ones, according to Deidre Mize, a Hallmark spokesperson.

“It might be someone who served in a father role,” she told National Geographic News in 2010. “Or it could be a stepdad.” (Read about a society without Father’s Day—or fathers.)

Despite all the cards given on Father’s Day, Hallmark didn’t have anything to do with the origins of the holiday, Mize added. Hallmark, she said, didn’t start printing Father’s Day cards until the 1920s.

Jun 18, 1940: Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich

June 18, 2011 · Posted in Military History · Comments Off 

Hitler and Mussolini
On this day in 1940, Benito Mussolini arrives in Munich with his foreign minister, Count Ciano, to discuss immediate plans with the Fuhrer, and doesn’t like what he hears.

Embarrassed over the late entry of Italy in the war against the Allies, and its rather tepid performance since, Mussolini met with Hitler determined to convince his Axis partner to exploit the advantage he had in France by demanding total surrender and occupying the southern portion still free. The Italian dictator clearly wanted “in” on the spoils, and this was a way of reaping rewards with a minimum of risk. But Hitler, too, was in no mood to risk, and was determined to put forward rather mild terms for peace with France. He needed to ensure that the French fleet remained neutral and that a government-in-exile was not formed in North Africa or London determined to further prosecute the war. He also denied Mussolini’s request that Italian troops occupy the Rhone Valley, and that Corsica, Tunisia, and Djibouti (adjacent to Italian-occupied Ethiopia) be disarmed.

Ciano recorded in his diary that Mussolini left the meeting frustrated and “very much embarrassed,” feeling “that his role is secondary.” Ciano also records a newfound respect for Hitler: “Today he speaks with a reserve and perspicacity which, after such a victory, are really astonishing.”
Hitler and Mussolini meet in Munich. (2011). The History Channel website. Retrieved 2:21, June 18, 2011, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/hitler-and-mussolini-meet-in-munich.

Jun 18, 1923: Checker Cab produces first taxi at Kalamazoo factory

June 18, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

On June 18, 1923, the first Checker Cab rolls off the line at the Checker Cab Manufacturing Company in Kalamazoo, Michigan.
Checker_cab

Morris Markin, founder of Checker Cab, was born in Smolensk, Russia, and began working when he was only 12 years old. At 19, he immigrated to the United States and moved to Chicago, where two uncles lived. After opening his own tailor’s shop, Markin also began running a fleet of cabs and an auto body shop, the Markin Auto Body Corporation, in Joliet, Illinois. In 1921, after loaning $15,000 to help a friend’s struggling car manufacturing business, the Commonwealth Motor Company, Markin absorbed Commonwealth into his own enterprise and completely halted the production of regular passenger cars in favor of taxis. The result was the Checker Cab Manufacturing Company, which took its name from a Chicago cab company that had hired Commonwealth to produce its vehicles.

By the end of 1922, Checker was producing more than 100 units per month in Joliet, and some 600 of the company’s cabs were on the streets of New York City. Markin went looking for a bigger factory and settled on Kalamazoo, where the company took over buildings previously used by the Handley-Knight Company and Dort Body Plant car manufacturers. The first shipment of a Checker from Kalamazoo on June 18, 1923 stood out as a major landmark in the history of the company, which by then employed some 700 people.

During the Great Depression, Markin briefly sold Checker, but he bought it back in 1936 and began diversifying his business by making auto parts for other car companies. After converting its factories to produce war materiel during World War II, Checker entered the passenger car market in the late 1950s, with models dubbed the Superba and the Marathon. In its peak production year of 1962, Checker rolled out some 8,173 cars; the great majority of those were taxis. Over the course of the 1970s, however, as economic conditions led taxi companies to convert smaller, more fuel-efficient standard passenger cars into cabs, the 4,000-pound gas-guzzling Checker came to seem more and more outdated. Markin had died in 1970, and in April 1982 his son David announced that Checker would halt production of its famous cab that summer. Though the company still owns the Yellow and Checker cab fleets in Chicago and continued to make parts for other auto manufacturers, including General Motors, the last Checker Cab rolled off the line in Kalamazoo on July 12, 1982.Checker Cab produces first taxi at Kalamazoo factory. (2011). The History Channel website. Retrieved 2:11, June 18, 2011, from http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/checker-cab-produces-first-taxi-at-kalamazoo-factory.

Some Key Dates in the History of IBM

June 16, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

By The Associated Press
June 16, 2011 (AP)
Key dates in the history of IBM:

—1911: The company that would later become IBM is formed as the Computing Tabulating Recording Co.

—1914: Thomas Watson Sr., a former executive at National Cash Register Co., joins the company. Watson becomes the company’s guiding force over the next four decades.

—1924: Company renamed International Business Machines.

—1936: Helps administer the new Social Security program with its punch card system.

—1944: The Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (ASCC), the first machine able to execute long computation automatically, is presented to Harvard. Eight feet high and 50 feet long, the electromechanical switches of “Mark I” could perform a multiplication problem in six seconds and division in about twice that time.

—1952: Watson’s son, Thomas Watson Jr., becomes president of the company. The elder Watson remains CEO until May 1956, a month before his death.

—1953: Unveils the IBM 701, an early large computer based on vacuum tubes. The vacuum tubes were faster than electromechanical switches, but could become very hot and were eventually replaced by transistors.

—1956: Creates first magnetic hard disk for data storage, Random Access Method of Accounting and Control, or RAMAC. The system’s “random access arm” retrieved data stored on 50 disks.

—1957: Creates the computer language FORTRAN. Designed to translate formulas into code (the name is short for FORmula TRANslation), it became a widely used program for technical computing.

—1961: Introduces the Selectric Typewriter, in which characters that strike the paper are arranged on a single metal ball rather than a row of individual keys. That kept the keys from jamming. The Selectric is remembered for its unique design.

—1964: Debuts System/360, a family of computers of different sizes. Because they were compatible with one another, growing businesses could upgrade more easily. IBM spent $5 billion on the project.

—1971: Creates the floppy disk, a way to store data that would become a feature of early PCs.

—1973: Supermarkets begin scanning UPC bar codes, invented by IBM

—1981. Introduces the IBM personal computer with a chip made by Intel and a Disk Operating System (DOS) made by a tiny company called Microsoft.

—1993: Louis Gerstner becomes the top executive with IBM on the brink of collapse given the rise of cheap microprocessors and rapid changes in the industry. He is the first outsider to head the company and engineered its transformation into software and services.

—1997: IBM’s Deep Blue computer becomes the first to defeat a world chess champion, winning a six-game match against Garry Kasparov.

—2011: IBM’s Watson system defeats two of Jeopardy’s greatest champions.

Source: IBM

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