History buffs gather as Gettysburg prepares for Civil War anniversary

June 24, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

Simon Mann
June 25, 2011 – 12:14AM

GETTYSBURG is not where you expect to find Adolf Hitler’s monogrammed, silver grooming set – brush, comb and hand-held mirror. Nor Eva Braun’s chemise.
art wide kennedy

Nor, for that matter, a shrine to John F. Kennedy that includes a cane rocking chair, made to order for a commander-in-chief with a crook back.

But there they are on display in the little Museum of History on Baltimore Street, along with thousands of Civil War artefacts – weapons, shrapnel, bullets, uniforms and manuscripts, even Abraham Lincoln’s wallet – that provide a reassuring geographical reference.

The eclectic hoard evolved from proprietor Erik Dorr’s early fascination with history.

At age eight, he saved $50 during a summer mowing lawns and, instead of buying baseball cards like his peers, he acquired a trunkload of mementoes taken from captured German soldiers in World War II by his school’s cleaner.

”My parents thought I was off my rocker,” he says, sheepishly.

But Dorr’s destiny was marked: he became a collector and then dealer, finally managing to lay his hands on some of the trove famously looted by US soldiers from Eagle’s Nest, Hitler’s lair in the Bavarian Alps.

In the heart of this Civil War precinct, the 43-year-old’s collection – displayed in the home that once belonged to his great-grandparents – might seem incongruous, especially as America commemorates the sesquicentenary of those bloodied and brutal 19th-century hostilities.

But history is the currency of Gettysburg, where the business of collecting and commemoration comes in various guises, from the intriguing to the classy and the kitsch, and where Lincoln’s face features on everything from plaques to baseballs, to packs of candy.

Yet for the town that is the most synonymous with the war, Gettysburg’s big moment is still two years away as events marking the 150th anniversary unfold to the timetable of the war, plotting a course from the first engagement of the war at Fort Sumter to the final battle at Appomattox.

Gettysburg’s turn comes in 2013, although those fateful first three days of July fall this year on a weekend, adding a buzz to the 148th anniversary re-enactments.

Preparations are apparent: footpaths are being relaid in the main street and workers tend the battlefield surrounds in the muggy early summer as tour groups navigate the 1300 monuments and memorials in buses, on horseback, bikes and Segways.

”It’s just starting to build,” says a bartender of the annual influx, a sepia-toned battlefield photograph displayed behind her that is actually the door to a wide fridge. ”It’s been busy but it’s gonna get a helluva lot busier,” she adds.

At the nearby American History Store, where generals Ulysses Grant and Robert E. Lee are kings on a Civil War chess board, a sales assistant has detected an upswing, too. ”I’ve noticed a lot more people already this year, so 2013 is going to be crazy.”

Just how ”crazy” is difficult to fathom, because already at the new Visitor Centre and Museum, busloads of tourists swarm the gift shop like locusts, stripping it of Gettysburg key-rings, Gettysburg cups, Gettysburg playing cards, Gettysburg teddies and T-shirts … pens, peanuts, prints and paraphernalia, as the Battle Hymn of the Republic is piped through the sound system.

The town centre, meanwhile, seems more suited to genuine history buffs, where relics are stocked by various dealerships, including one on Steinwehr Avenue where the vendor is retelling with gusto the moment when a Russian tourist slapped roubles on the counter and tried to make off with a $3000 revolver.

Here a rusty cannon ball, still in one piece, is selling for $US475, bayonets for $US750 and an 1861 Enfield rifle for $US5500.

The good burghers of Gettysburg have harvested tonnes of munitions from the battlefield in the decades since the two armies collided there, putting the Pennsylvania town forever on the map.

The combatants fired more than 600 tonnes of metal over the three days, as they soaked the battlefield with the blood of 10,000 dead and another 30,000 wounded.

Some had died instantly, wrote a Union soldier from Wisconsin. ”Others had struggled fiercely with death, tearing the earth with their hands, dying at last with expressions of the most horrible agony lingering on their distorted features.”

Months later, America’s first National Cemetery would be consecrated on six hectares of land in the middle of Gettysburg.

The president attended but was not billed as the main speaker. Instead, Lincoln was invited to make ”a few appropriate remarks”. Which he did, for just two minutes.

And the rest is history.

This story was found at: http://www.smh.com.au/world/history-buffs-gather-as-gettysburg-prepares-for-civil-war-anniversary-20110624-1gjl4.html

 

Census Shows Whites Lose US Majority Among Babies

June 23, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

By HOPE YEN Associated Press
WASHINGTON June 23, 2011 (AP)
census_babies

For the first time, minorities make up a majority of babies in the U.S., part of a sweeping race change and growing age divide between mostly white, older Americans and predominantly minority youths that could reshape government policies.

Preliminary census estimates also show the share of African-American households headed by women — made up of mostly single mothers — now exceeds African-American households with married couples, a sign of declining U.S. marriages overall but also continuing challenges for black youths without involved fathers.

The findings, based on the latest government data, offer a preview of final 2010 census results being released this summer that provide detailed breakdowns by age, race and householder relationships such as same-sex couples.

Demographers say the numbers provide the clearest confirmation yet of a changing social order, one in which racial and ethnic minorities will become the U.S. majority by midcentury.

“We’re moving toward an acknowledgment that we’re living in a different world than the 1950s, where married or two-parent heterosexual couples are now no longer the norm for a lot of kids, especially kids of color,” said Laura Speer, coordinator of the Kids Count project for the Baltimore-based Annie E. Casey Foundation.

The Results Are in From the Census Bureau Watch Video

Census Goes Under the Sea Watch Video

Census Worker Arrested for Rape Watch Video

“It’s clear the younger generation is very demographically different from the elderly, something to keep in mind as politics plays out on how programs for the elderly get supported,” she said. “It’s critical that children are able to grow to compete internationally and keep state economies rolling.”

Currently, non-Hispanic whites make up just under half of all children 3 years old, which is the youngest age group shown in the Census Bureau’s October 2009 annual survey, its most recent. In 1990, more than 60 percent of children in that age group were white.

William H. Frey, a demographer at the Brookings Institution who analyzed the data, said figures in the 2009 survey can sometimes be inexact compared with the 2010 census, which queries the entire nation. But he said when factoring in the 2010 data released so far, minorities outnumber whites among babies under age 2.

The preliminary figures are based on an analysis of the Current Population Survey as well as the 2009 American Community Survey, which sampled 3 million U.S. households to determine that whites made up 51 percent of babies younger than 2. After taking into account a larger-than-expected jump in the minority child population in the 2010 census, the share of white babies falls below 50 percent.

Twelve states and the District of Columbia now have white populations below 50 percent among children under age 5 — Hawaii, California, New Mexico, Texas, Arizona, Nevada, Florida, Maryland, Georgia, New Jersey, New York and Mississippi. That’s up from six states and the District of Columbia in 2000.

At current growth rates, seven more states could flip to “minority-majority” status among small children in the next decade: Illinois, North Carolina, Virginia, Colorado, Connecticut, South Carolina and Delaware.

By contrast, whites make up the vast majority of older Americans — 80 percent of seniors 65 and older and roughly 73 percent of people ages 45-64. Many states with high percentages of white seniors also have particularly large shares of minority children, including Arizona, Nevada, California, Texas and Florida.

‘I’m out. I’m fine,’ artist Ai Weiwei says after he’s freed on bail in China

June 22, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/la-fg-china-artist-20110623,0,4814130.story

ai weiweiAcerbic, dissident artist Ai Weiwei languished for more than two months in prison without charges before being abruptly released by Chinese authorities. The government, which may now pursue a civil case against Ai, cites his ‘good attitude,’ while others say international pressure played a role.

By Barbara Demick, Los Angeles Times

11:52 AM PDT, June 22, 2011

Reporting from Beijing

After languishing for more than two months in prison without formal charges, China’s most famous dissident artist was abruptly released on bail late Wednesday.

“I’m out. I’m fine,” Ai Weiwei wrote in text messages to friends and supporters about midnight after returning to the art studio where he makes his home in northeastern Beijing.

The official New China News Agency reported that Ai had been freed “because of his good attitude in confessing his crimes as well as a chronic disease he suffers from.”

The 54-year-old artist has been reported to suffer from diabetes and high blood pressure, although he was not known to be seriously ill. More likely the release was a belated response by Chinese authorities to the international reproach that followed Ai’s arrest April 3 at the Beijing Airport.

While dozens of others have been arrested over the last six months in a crackdown on activists, it was Ai — by dint of his stature in the art world — who inspired petitions and demonstrations across the world. In London, the Tate Gallery installed large black letters across its facade reading, “Free Ai Weiwei.” In New York, a Cuban artist used a slide projector at night to cast the artist’s face onto the Chinese consulate.

Ai had not been formally charged, although the state press reported that his company, Beijing Fake Cultural Development Ltd., had evaded “huge amounts” of taxes. In Wednesday night’s release, New China quoted police saying that “the decision [to release Ai] comes also in consideration of the fact that Ai has repeatedly said he is willing to pay the taxes he evaded.”

The wording suggests that Chinese authorities might switch their case against Ai to a civil proceeding, which would allow them to back away gracefully from a situation that has brought great embarrassment. Ai’s attorney, Liu Xiaoyuan, wrote Tuesday night on Twitter that they were still awaiting an accounting from tax authorities of how much money was supposed to be owed. In messages to supporters, Ai said that he was fine, but unable to give interviews under the conditions of his release.

His assistant, Du Yanping, confirmed that Ai had returned home and reported with some satisfaction about her pot-bellied boss: “He got slimmer.”

Human Rights Watch applauded Ai’s release, adding its own caveats.

“The public announcement of his release signals that the Chinese government has had to respond to international pressure and that the cost/benefit ratio of continuing to detain him was no longer tenable,” said Phelim Kine, an Asia researcher with the organization, in a statement. “Sadly, other Chinese citizens less well-known than Ai Weiwei who have been forcibly disappeared since mid-February remain incommunicado, whereabouts unknown and at high risk of torture.”

Ai, a provocative artist and one of the designers of the Bird’s Nest stadium in the 2008 Beijing Olympics, in recent years had become one of the most acerbic critics of the Chinese Communist Party. Much of his latest work has revolved around the tragedy of thousands of children killed when shoddily built schools collapsed during the 2008 earthquake in Sichuan province.

barbara.demick@latimes.com

Copyright © 2011, Los Angeles Times

 

Oceans heading for mass extinctions, experts warn

June 21, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 
Great Barrier Reef Park / AFP – Getty Images file
http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/43479398/ns/world_news-world_environment/#

Thissection of Australia’s Great Barrier Reef in
2009 saw “bleaching” of coralcaused by warmer
than normal ocean temperatures. Bleaching can kill
reefs if it is prolonged.

msnbc.com staff and news service reports

coral-bleaching
WASHINGTON— Mass extinctions of species
in the world’s oceans are inevitable if current
trends of overfishing, habitat loss, global
warming and pollution continue, a panel of
renowned marine scientists warned Tuesday.

The combination of problems suggests there’s
a brewing worldwide die-off of species that
would rival past mass extinctions, the 27
scientists said in a preliminary report
presented to the UnitedNations

.

Vanishing species — from sea turtles to coral

— would upend the ocean’s ecosystem. Fish
are the main source of protein for a fifth of the
world’s population and the seas cycle oxygen
and help absorb carbon dioxide, the main
greenhouse gas from human activities.

“Things seem to be going wrong on several
different levels,” said Carl Lundin, director of
global marine programs at the International
Union for Conservation of Nature, which
helped produce the report with the
International Programme on the State of the
Ocean.

Some of the changes affecting the world’s seas
— which have been warned about individually
in the past — are happening faster than the
worst case scenarios that were predicted just
a few years ago, the report said.

“It was a more dire report than any of us
thought because we look at our own little
issues,” Lundin said. “When you put them all
together, it’s a pretty bleak situation.”

Climate and coral
Coral deaths alone would be considered a
mass extinction, according to study chief
author Alex Rogers of the University of
Oxford. A single bleaching event in 1998 killed
one-sixth of the world’s tropical coralreefs

.
advertisement
2146167097807057237524
2146167101665057237525
2146167106327057237526
Oceans heading for mass extinctions, experts warn
Scientist: Situation is ‘more dire’ than any of us thought
Lundin pointed to deaths of 1,000-year-old
coral in the Indian Ocean and called it “really
unprecedented.”

“Not only are we already experiencing severe
declines in many species to the point of
commercial extinction in some cases, and an
unparalleled rate of regional extinctions of
habitat types (e.g. mangroves and seagrass
meadows), but we now face losing marine
species and entire marine ecosystems, such as
coral reefs, within a single generation,” the
experts said.

The chief causes for extinctions at the moment
are overfishing and habitat loss, but global
warming

is “increasingly adding to this,” the report
said.

Carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil
fuels ends up sinking in the oceans, which
then become more acidic, devastating
sensitive coral reefs. Warmer ocean
temperatures also are shifting species from
their normal habitats, Rogers said. Non-native
species moving into new areas can cause
havoc to those ecosystems.

Jelle Bijma, of the Alfred Wegener Institute,
said the seas faced a “deadly trio” of threats of
higher temperatures, acidification and lack of
oxygen that had featured in several past mass
extinctions.

Runoff from fertilizers into rivers and seas has
reduced oxygen in those areas, creating
dozens of “dead zones” around the globe.
The U.S. Geological Survey earlier this month
said it expects the dead zone from the
Mississippi River to set a record when it builds l
ater this summer due to flooding runoff.

“From a geological point of view, mass
extinctions happen overnight, but on human
timescales we may not realize that we are in
the middle of such an event,” Bijma wrote.

Chemicals and plastics from daily life also are
causing problems for sea creatures, the report
said. Overall, the world’s oceans just cannot
bounce back from problems — such as oil
spills — like they used to because of all the
compounding factors, scientists said.

Confounding the most dire predictions, the
GulfofMexico

has bounced back from last year’s major oil
spill, but it is still dealing with the growing
“dead zone” and above average sea
temperatures.

Similar ‘stressors’ in past extinctions
Describing the multiple events affecting the
world’s oceans as high intensity “stressors,”
the experts said similar compounding led to
the previous five mass extinction events in the
past 600 million years — most recently when
the dinosaurs vanished 65 million years ago,
apparently after an asteroid struck.

Data: The rise and fall of Earth’s
species (on this page)

The conclusions follow an international
meeting this spring in England to discuss the
fate of the world’s oceans. A full report will be
published later this year, the panel said.

Lundin said that “some of these things are
reversible if we change our behavior.”

Overfishing is the easiest for governments to
address, the experts said.

2146167108699057237527
2146167112806057237528
“Unlike climate change, it can be directly,
immediately and effectively tackled by policy
change,” said William Cheung of the University
of East Anglia. “Overfishing is now estimated
to account for over 60 percent of the known
local and global extinction of marine fishes.”

Among examples of overfishing are the
Chinese bahaba. Its swim bladder is desired in
Asia as a medicinal product, and the cost per
kilo (2.2 pounds) has risen from a few dollars
in the 1930s to $20,000-$70,000 today.

Listed as critically endangered, the bahaba is
just one of more than 500 marine species
threatened by overfishing, Cheung noted. “The
only chance for many of these species to
recover is to stop overfishing and protect
them so that the populations can rebuild,” he
added.

“If action is not taken immediately, our
generation will see many more species follow
the footsteps of the Chinese bahaba,” Cheung
said.

Steve Murawski, a University of South Florida
professor and previously chief science advisor f
or the U.S. National Marine Fisheries Service,
said “it’s difficult to judge the veracity of the
results or the scientific support” for the
findings because the full report hasn’t been
published.

But he noted that in the United States “a strong
set of management requirements backed by
the force of law have resulted in an end to
domestic overfishing.”

“This is of course a very hopeful sign because
the USA is such an important fishing nation,”
he added. “Is the record commensurate
globally? No it is not, and thus I would
certainly support” the panel’s advice to reduce

global fishing “to levels commensurate with
long-term sustainability of fisheries and the
marine environment.”

The Associated Press and Reuters contributed to this
report.

Pyramid Hieroglyphs Likely Engineering Numbers

June 19, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

http://news.discovery.com/history/pyramid-hieroglyph-markings-archaeologist-110607.html

By Rossella Lorenzi | Tue Jun 7, 2011 12:19 PM ET

Mysterious hieroglyphs written in red paint on the floor of a hidden chamber in Egypt’s Great Pyramid of Giza are just numbers, according to a mathematical analysis of the 4,500-year-old mausoleum.

Shown to the world last month, when the first report of a robot exploration of the Great Pyramid was published in the Annales du Service Des Antiquities de l’Egypte (ASAE), the images revealed features that have not been seen by human eyes since the construction of the monument.

Researchers were particularly intrigued by three red ochre figures painted on the floor of a hidden chamber at the end of a tunnel deep inside the pyramid.

NEWS: Pyramid-Exploring Robot Reveals Hidden Hieroglyphs

“There are many unanswered questions that these images raise,” Rob Richardson, the engineer who designed the robot at the University of Leeds, told Discovery News. “Why is there writing in this space? What does the writing say? There appears to be a masonry cutting mark next to the figures: why was it not cut along this line?” Richardson wondered.

invisible soldier
DNEWS VIDEO: FIND OUT WHAT IT’S LIKE TO BE A MUMMY-HUNTER

Luca Miatello, an independent researcher who specializes on ancient Egyptian mathematics, believes he has some answers.

“The markings are hieratic numerical signs. They read from right to left, meaning 100, 20, 1. The builders simply recorded the total length of the shaft: 121 cubits,” Miatello told Discovery News.

The royal cubit, the ancient Egyptian unit of measurement used in the construction of the pyramid, was between 52.3 and 52.5 cm (20.6 to 20.64 inches) in length, and was subdivided into seven palms of four digits (four fingers) each, making it a 28-part measure.

According to Miatello, who has written about the pyramid’s numerical patterns in the journal Ankh, and also more recently in PalArch’s Journal of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology, multiples of 7, 9 and 11 cubits occur frequently in the design of the Great Pyramid.

Built for the pharaoh Cheops, also known as Khufu, the Great Pyramid is the largest of a family of three pyramids on the Giza plateau, on the outskirts of Cairo and has long been rumored to have hidden passageways leading to secret chambers.Archaeologists have long puzzled over the purpose of four narrow shafts deep inside the pyramid since they were first discovered in 1872.

NEWS: Great Pyramid May Hold Two Hidden Chambers

Two shafts, extend from the upper, or “King’s Chamber” and exit into open air.

But the lower two, one on the south side and one on the north side in the so-called “Queen’s Chamber” disappear within the structures, deepening the pyramid mystery.

Robots have previously explored and sent back pictures from these 8-inch-square shafts, indicating that both shafts are blocked by a stone door. These stones are approximately equidistant (63.6 meters) from the Queen’s Chamber.

The new robot, named Djedi after the magician who Khufu consulted when planning the layout of this pyramid, has gone further than anyone has ever been before in the monument.

The project, led by Zahi Hawass, Egypt’s Minister of State for Antiquities Affairs, began with the exploration of the southern shaft of the Queen’s Chamber.

The robot was able to climb inside the walls of the shaft while carrying a bendy camera, small enough to fit through a small hole in a stone door at the end of the tunnel.

This gave researchers a clear view into the chamber beyond. It was at that time that the micro snake camera sent back images of 4,500-year-old markings.

“The floor of the chamber has a red ochre mason’s line running parallel to the shaft from just beyond the rear of the first blocking stone to the second blocking stone,” Hawass and colleagues write in ASAE.

“There is also a black mark where the red line meets the second blocking stone. To the right of, and at approximately 45 degrees to the red line are three red ochre figures,” they added.

According to Miatello, the red markings and figures were made by the workers during the pyramid construction.

“Precise mathematical rules were followed in the design of the pyramid’s tunnels,” Miatello said.

“We have considered several interpretations of the painted figures, including the possibility that they record the length of the shaft. Our strategy is to keep an open mind and only draw conclusions when we have completed our work. However, if this really is a written measurement of the shaft length then it’s very exciting,” project mission manager Shaun Whitehead, of the exploration company Scoutek UK, told Discovery News.

Hawass and colleagues agree that the markings are mason’s marks or hieratic characters.

“The two main figures are similar to the hieratic number 21,” they write in their report.

According to James P. Allen, a Wilbour Professor of Egyptology and Chair of Egyptology and Ancient Western Asian Studies at Brown University, the figures can indeed show the numbers indicated by Miatello.

“The signs are not easy to read, but Dr. Miatello’s reading is entirely plausible,” Allen, author of “The Ancient Egyptian Pyramid Texts, Writings from the Ancient World” and a leading expert on hieroglyphics, told Discovery News.

The Djedi project researchers expect to carry additional analysis of the red ochre markings in August, when the robot, equipped with a higher resolution bendy camera will return to the pyramid for further surveys.

 

Humans First Wore Clothing 170,000 Years Ago

June 19, 2011 · Posted in Uncategorized · Comments Off 

http://news.discovery.com/human/humans-first-wore-clothing-170000-years-ago.html

By Jennifer Viegas | Thu Jan 6, 2011 01:35 PM ET
Humans began to wear clothing 170,000 years ago, concludes a new study that suggests our ancestors first put on clothes after the second-to-last Ice Age, when being nude must have been too cool for comfort.

The evidence comes from seemingly very unfashionable lice, since scientists tracked when head lice evolved into clothing/body lice around 170,000 years ago. So lice have been with us since the world’s first clothes were made.
viking atire

(Viking attire circa 900 A.D. By this advanced stage, humans had created very sophisticated and colorful ways to clothe themselves. Credit: Annika Larsson)

The study, published in this month’s Molecular Biology and Evolution journal, explains how DNA sequencing of the parasites was used to calculate when clothing lice first began to genetically diverge from human head lice.
lice

(Adult female, left, and adult male, right, head lice; Wikimedia Commons image)

“We wanted to find another method for pinpointing when humans might have first started wearing clothing,” said project leader David Reed, associate curator of mammals at the Florida Museum of Natural History, in a University of Florida press release. “Because they are so well adapted to clothing, we know that body lice or clothing lice almost certainly didn’t exist until clothing came about in humans.”

The findings reveal that our ancestors started to wear clothing long after they lost their ape-like body hair. Genetic skin coloration research shows that hair loss happened around one million years ago, long before modern humans emerged in Africa. Our ancestors were likely running around nude and relatively hairless for quite some time then.

“It’s interesting to think humans were able to survive in Africa for hundreds of thousands of years without clothing and without body hair, and that it wasn’t until they had clothing that modern humans were then moving out of Africa into other parts of the world,” Reed said.

He added that our success and progression as a species has been made possible, in large part, to our “controlled use of fire, the ability to use clothing, new hunting strategies and new stone tools.”

Since our ancestors are thought to have migrated out of Africa and into colder climates and higher latitudes anywhere from 100,000 to 60,000 years ago, the findings indicate the invention of clothing made such long journeys northward possible.

The second to the last Ice Age occurred around 180,000 years ago, so in the aftermath of that cooling, humans may have figured out that putting on clothes- probably animal furs and skins- had enormous benefits. Years ago I also read some interesting studies on how a drive to express individuality and status pushed humans to wear more distinctive clothing, shoes and jewelry, and to don makeup and sport tattoos. Group divisions and competition can fuel that “look at me” desire, along with needing to visually affiliate oneself with a particular sect.

A study of clothing lice in 2003 led by Mark Stoneking, a geneticist at the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig, Germany, estimated humans first began wearing clothes about 107,000 years ago. But the UF research includes new data and calculation methods.

“The new result from this lice study is an unexpectedly early date for clothing, much older than the earliest solid archaeological evidence, but it makes sense,” said Ian Gilligan, lecturer in the School of Archaeology and Anthropology at The Australian National University. “It means modern humans probably started wearing clothes on a regular basis to keep warm when they were first exposed to Ice Age conditions.”

Lice aren’t exactly beloved creatures. They’re usually associated with miserable kids having to go through lice removal treatments. From a scientific standpoint, however, they are valuable. These parasites are often found stranded on lineages of hosts over long periods of time, permitting researchers to learn about evolutionary changes in the host based on changes in the parasite.

Lice don’t just tell us about clothing either. Such research on them, according to Reed, “gives the opportunity to study host-switching and invading new hosts — behaviors seen in emerging infectious diseases that affect humans.”

« Previous PageNext Page »