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Glenn Edward McDuffie, a U.S. Navy sailor in World War II and believed to be the man in the famous kiss picture taken by photographer Alfred Eisenstaedt, died today March 3, 2014.
It was decades ago on Aug. 14, 1945 in Times Square when McDuffie and a nurse celebrated the end of the war in an embracing kiss that is an iconic image in American history.
On Oct. 1, 1962 Mississippi University admitted James Meredith; their first black student. This Federally ordered act of integration resulted in a violent mob riot on the campus. Two people were killed and hundreds injured. Mississippi had segregationist laws that Governor Ross Barnett tried to uphold despite President Kennedy’s order to obey the federal law against segregation. The fight to preserve James Meredith’s civil right to attend the University of Mississippi is sometimes referred to as “the last battle of the Civil War”.
When we think of the plague, we imagine ages gone by, the middle ages in particular, safely contained inside the texts of detailed accounts in history books. Most of us don’t associate the plague with current times, but the truth is 10 to 20 people in the United States contract plague each year. In fact, infected mice from a lab in New Jersey escaped in 2005 and have never been found.
In the news recently, we are warned of an increased risk of ancient diseases thawing back into existence; the Bubonic plague being one. An example is a 30,000 year old virus that has been brought back to life from its Siberian permafrost tomb. Scientist believe that we could be vulnerable to more of these frozen enemies as climate change thaws out our planet.
430 B.C.- During the second year of the Peloponnesian War, Thucydides writes about a disease that is believed to have been the Plague
540 A.D.- An outbreak of Plague occurs at Pelusium, Egypt.
542 A.D.- Plague reaches Constantinople.
1334- Plague occurs in Constantinople
1339-1346- The famine occurs. This goes on for seven years and is known as “the famine before the plague.”
1347- The Black Plague began spreading through Western Europe
Fall 1347- Reports of the plague are recorded in Alexandria, Cyprus, and Sicily.
Winter 1347- Plague then reaches Italy.
Jan. 1348- Next, the plague reaches France and Germany.
1349- 1/3 of the population in Western Europe was dead from the plague. That is roughly 25 million people.
May 1349- It then reaches Norway.
1350- Afterwards the plague reaches Eastern Europe. More specifically, it reaches London, Scotland, Wales, and Ireland.
1351- The plague reaches Russia.
1353- Giovanni Boccaccio finishes writing The Decameron, a fictional narrative that opens with a description of the 1348 outbreak of Black Death in Florence, Italy.
March 1665- The Great Plague of London begins, and 43 people died by May.
June 1665- 6,137 people die by June.
July 1665- 17,036 people die by July.
Aug. 1665- 31,159 people die by August.
1666- The Great Fire of London destroys most of the rats and fleas that carry the plague bacillus.
1679- The plague devastates central Europe.
1711- Plague breaks out in Austria.
1722- Daniel Defoe publishes A Journal of the Plague Year, a fictional recounting of the great Plague of London in 1665.
1770- The Balkans battle the Plague for two years.
1877: The pandemic starts up again and flares up in Russia, China, and India.
1889: The Pandemic begins to near an end.
1894: Working independently, bacteriologists Alexandre Yersin and Shibasaburo Kitasato both isolate the bacterium that causes the Black Death. Yersin discovers that rodents are the mode of infection. The bacterium is named Yersina Pestis after Yersin.
1896: The pandemic in China and India is over.
1947: Albert Camus publishes The Plague, a novel about a fictional outbreak of plague in Oran, Algeria.
Sept. 2005: Three mice infected with Bubonic Plague disappear from a laboratory at the Public Health Research Institute in New Jersey.
Francis Ferdinand assassinated at Sarajevo
Kaiser William II promised German support for Austria against Serbia
Austria declared war on Serbia
Germany declared war on Russia
Germany declared war on France and invaded Belgium. Germany had to implement the Schlieffen Plan.
Britain declared war on Germany
The BEF started its retreat from Mons. Germany invaded France.
Russian army defeated at Tannenburg and Masurian Lakes.
Battle of the Marne started
First Battle of Ypres
Turkey entered the war on Germany’s side. Trench warfare started to dominate the Western Front.
The first Zeppelin raid on Britain took place
Britain bombarded Turkish forts in the Dardanelles
Allied troops landed in Gallipoli
The “Lusitania” was sunk by a German U-boat
Italy declared war on Germany and Austria
The Germans captured Warsaw from the Russians
September 25th Start of the Battle of Loos
The Allies started the evacuation of Gallipoli
Conscription introduced in Britain
Start of the Battle of Verdun
British forces surrendered to Turkish forces at Kut in Mesopotamia
Battle of Jutland
Start of the Brusilov Offensive
Start of the Battle of the Somme
End of the Brusilov Offensive
First use en masse of tanks at the Somme
Lloyd George becomes British Prime Minister
Germany’s unrestricted submarine warfare campaign started
USA declared war on Germany
France launched an unsuccessful offensive on the Western Front
Start of the Third Battle at Ypres
Battle of Caporetto – the Italian Army was heavily defeated
Britain launched a major offensive on the Western Front
British tanks won a victory at Cambrai
Armistice between Germany and Russia signed
Britain captured Jerusalem from the Turks
The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed between Russia and Germany.
Germany broke through on the Somme
Marshall Foch was appointed Allied Commander on the Western Front
Germany started an offensive in Flanders
Second Battle of the Marne started. The start of the collapse of the German army
The advance of the Allies was successful
Turkish forces collapsed at Megiddo
Germany asked the Allies for an armistice
Germany’s navy mutinied
Turkey made peace
Austria made peace
Kaiser William II abdicated
Germany signed an armistice with the Allies – the official date of the end of World War One.
Post-war – 1919
Peace conference met at Paris
The surrendered German naval fleet at Scapa Flow was scuttled.
The Treaty of Versailles was signed by the Germans